Exploring Motor Winding: Types and Calculations


Electric motors are ubiquitous in our daily lives, powering everything from household appliances to industrial machinery. At the heart of these motors lies a critical component known as motor windings. Understanding the various types of electric motor coil winding machine  and the calculations involved in their design is essential for engineers, manufacturers, and anyone interested in how these machines work.

The Importance of Motor Windings

Motor windings are the coils of wire that generate electromagnetic fields when electrical current flows through them. These fields interact with the stator and rotor of the motor, resulting in the rotation of the shaft and the mechanical work produced. In essence, motor windings are the powerhouse of electric motors.Let’s delve into the different types of  motor windings and the calculations associated with them.

Types of Motor Windings

1. Lap Winding

Lap winding is one of the most common winding types and is often used in motors that require high current but have a low number of poles. In lap winding, the coil sides of each winding are connected to adjacent commutator segments. This arrangement ensures that the current flow in the coils is parallel to the magnetic field, making it ideal for high-current applications.

2. Wave Winding

Wave winding, on the other hand, is utilized in motors with a higher number of poles and lower current requirements. In this winding type, the coil sides are connected to segments of the commutator that are not adjacent to each other. This arrangement results in the current direction changing as it moves along the windings, creating a wave-like pattern. Wave winding is suitable for motors where the number of poles is a multiple of the number of armature slots.

3. Concentric Winding

Concentric winding, as the name suggests, arranges the windings in concentric circles. This winding type is often used in armature windings of direct current (DC) motors and generators. Concentric winding is known for its simplicity and ease of construction, making it cost-effective for applications where precision is not as critical.

4. Progressive Winding

Progressive winding is a variation of lap winding where the coils overlap in a progressive manner, ensuring that the current flows in a single direction around the armature. This type of winding is employed in high-performance motors that require smooth operation and precise control.

Motor Winding Calculations

Designing motor windings is a complex process that involves several calculations. Here are some key considerations:

1. Turns per Coil (N)

The number of turns per coil is a crucial parameter. It determines the voltage generated by each coil and affects the motor’s performance. The formula for calculating turns per coil is:



N is the turns per coil

V is the voltage supplied to the motor

E is the electromotive force generated by the coil

2. Total Number of Coils (Z)

The total number of coils in a motor winding depends on the number of poles (P) and the number of armature slots (S). The formula for calculating the total number of coils is:



Z is the total number of coils

P is the number of poles

S is the number of armature slots

3. Pitch Factor (Kp)

The pitch factor accounts for the distribution of coils along the armature core. It can be calculated using the following formula:



Kp is the pitch factor

N is the turns per coil

Z is the total number of coils

4. Parallel Paths (P)

The number of parallel paths in a motor winding affects its current-carrying capacity and efficiency. The formula for calculating parallel paths is:



P is the number of parallel paths

Z is the total number of coils

A is the number of parallel circuits in each coil

5. Coil Span (Y)

The coil span determines the angular displacement between adjacent coils. It can be calculated as:



Y is the coil span

P is the number of poles

These calculations are fundamental in designing motor windings that meet the specific requirements of a motor or generator. Achieving the right balance of turns, pitch factor, and parallel paths is essential for optimal motor performance.

The Role of Electric Motor Coil Winding Machines

Electric motor coil winding machines play a crucial role in the production of motor windings. These machines are designed to wind coils with precision and consistency, ensuring that the calculated parameters are met.

Key benefits of using electric motor coil winding machines include:


These machines can wind coils with extreme precision, reducing errors and ensuring that the motor performs as expected.


Electric motor coil winding machines are much faster and more efficient than manual winding. This results in increased production rates and cost savings.


By eliminating variations in winding tension and wire placement, these machines ensure that every coil in a motor is identical, enhancing motor performance and reliability.


Modern winding machines are highly adaptable, allowing for customization of winding patterns to suit the specific requirements of different motor designs.

In conclusion

motor windings are the heart and soul of electric motors, and understanding their types and the associated calculations is vital for engineers and manufacturers. Whether it’s lap winding, wave winding, concentric winding, or progressive winding, each has its place in the world of electric motors. The calculations involved in designing motor windings are complex, but they are essential for achieving the desired motor performance.

Additionally, the use of electric motor coil winding machines has revolutionized the manufacturing process, enabling higher precision, consistency, and efficiency in the production of motor windings. As technology advances, these machines will continue to play a significant role in the development of more efficient and powerful electric motors, driving innovation across various industries.